Thursday, February 5, 2015

More Thoughts on The Fool

The Fool in Art and Literature of the Middle Ages
     
     What more is there to discover about the fool in the Tarot? Let’s see what was happening in the Middle Ages. Although a really accurate timeline cannot be established for the beginnings of Tarot, the precursors to Tarot cards existed in medieval art and literature. We can at least see actual playing cards in the paintings of 15th/16th Century artists such as Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) and Pieter Bruegel (1525-1569). We see the fool and frolicking people involved in
The Fool in Mainz by
Blaius Spreng
ridiculous fantasy and satire in both Bruegel’s and Bosch's’ paintings in the genre of the time. Bosch painted a traditional fool in a segment called “Lust” as part of a larger painting: the “Seven Deadly Sins” tondo. This fool wears the customary fool’s cap with ass ears and is holding up a puppet-head usually interpreted as a mock septre. One of his paintings, “The Cure of Folly,” depicts a charlatan healer with a funnel on his head (a sign of deceit) who is cutting out the so-called “stone of folly” from a guileless man’s head. Then in his painting, “The Ship of Fools,” which was probably painted after Sebastian Brant’s book “The Ship of Fools” came out (published in 1494), we see a nun and a monk trying to catch a pastry in their mouths while singing. An obvious fool is perched on a broken tree drinking from a bowl. He is wearing the fool’s cap with ass ears and holding a puppet-head mock septre. These paintings can all be viewed on the Hieronymus Bosch website.
     In the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C., there is an early 16th century painting, “The Card Players,” attributed to Lucas van Leyden (1525-1569). In it, we see people seated around a table holding large playing cards and placing their bets. In another of his paintings, “The Fortune Teller,” a oddly dressed man stands behind the fortune teller, and he is holding the puppet-head. Obviously, this man is the fool. (For a lively discussion and speculation about this painting see Mary Greer’s Tarot Blog.) With the invention of the Gutenberg Press in 1439, reformers such as Erasmus of Rotterdam published “In Praise of Folly” in 1509, where he regarded “man as the culprit for society’s ills.” For him, the follies were endless. Sebastian Brant of Switzerland published “Das Narrenschiff” (The Ship of Fools), attacking human foolishness by depicting man’s sorry condition in clever quips and woodcuts, beginning with a ship loaded with fools, gamblers, idlers, gossips, and gluttons, and so on.  A few of the woodcuts were by Albrecht Durer. In our era, the artist and art historian, Brian Williams, has written a book and illustrated a tarot deck called “The Book of Fools” inspired by Brant’s work. It includes an excellent translation of Brant’s commentary about each picture and an accurate redrawing of the original illustrations. 
     It’s important to realize the new Protestantism was spreading in Flanders during Pieter Bruegel’s time and he was one of the first artists to portray peasant folk realistically as they were going about their daily work. His paintings were like many layered stories of peasant life filled with a depth of field vista and minute details. We see the fool entertaining (the background) in the painting “The Peasant Dance.” It seems both he and Bosch were picking up on the “signs of the times.” The Reformation was underway with uprisings, rebellions, and political wars that were being fought in many parts of Medieval Europe. Bruegel was careful to disguise his painting, “The Massacre of the Innocents", as a depiction of the Biblical story, when in reality, it was showing the massacre of the peasants (peasant wars in Germany of 1524-1526). These were times of persecution, of rebellion against the Spanish King, and religious wars between Protestants and Catholics. The political order was breaking down. Fear of the “Devil” was rampant. Martin Luther had posted his thesis for reform of the Catholic Church in 1517. Simultaneously, peasants in the lowlands of the Netherlands and Germany were living in fear from cruel lords and landowners. The “Inquisition” was ongoing as the church was attempting to root out heresy and any remnants of paganism. So-called witches were being burned at the stake. Corruption and greed was rampant, especially among the clergy.  For instance, with the sale of “indulgences” by the Catholic Church, you could buy your way to heaven by filling out a form and paying a fee to signify your repentance for a specific sin. In relation to that, around 10,000 little tin badges have been found recently, in Bosch's’ home town of Den Bosch according to Theo Toebosch’s article in Archaeology Magazine. Many resemble the surreal images seen in Bosch's paintings and some are downright immoral (Article in Archaeology,  “Digging the Fantastical,” 2002, p. 37). Their actual meaning is unknown. They may have been souvenirs for travelers. Some may have been presented to repentant sinners as a token of penitence for a sin, or used as amulets protecting against negative demons. Perhaps they were magical talismans intended to increase one’s powers. The selling of Indulgences was one of the main issues that prompted reformist Martin Luther to take action against the Catholic Church and when the Reformation began it created even more death and turmoil for the peasants. There were peasant and merchant revolts against the nobility, their knights, corrupt church abbots, and overlords. Over one hundred thousand to three hundred thousand people died in these wars. You can find these themes in the art of both Bosch and Bruegel.
     In an article by Thomas Meehan, “The Flight From Reason” (Horizon, Vol.XII, American Heritage Pub. 1970) he sees parallels in ”patterns of behavior” between our times now, and the behavior of Europeans between the 15th and 16th centuries. Meehan was comparing the seemingly free love era, the peace movement, and “hippy craze” happening during the Vietnam War in the 1960’s and 70’s, to the late Middle Ages, and it seems times haven’t changed much since then. Of course he was speaking in generalizations. He noted that, since 1914 [to 1970] the astounding fact, that in the 20th century, over one hundred million people have been killed in wars. That doesn’t include the “Kosovo, Herzegovina” war, or the Iraq, Afghanistan wars, or “Israeli, Gaza” conflict. Meehan notes that after the death and destruction in many European cities from The Plague in the 14th century, people became obsessed with the fear of death, which may have led to increased rituals of frivolity and celebration, a kind of madness “…where the madman [the Fool] was applauded as a hero” in celebrations such as Carnival, Shrove Tuesday, (Mardi Gras) and theater comedy. The central panel in Bosch’s “Garden of Earthly Delights” may represent the peasants search for utopia.
     History repeats itself as they say. In our time, with the European holocaust in WWII, the building of the atomic bomb and the holocaust of Hiroshima and, more recently, the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster in Japan, we are still obsessed with the fear of death from nuclear attack or nuclear accident. Some people in the USA are building bomb shelters again since the 911 WTO attack on New York City just as they did during the “Cuban Missile Crisis” in 1962. Similar to partying in the 16th century, our own current celebrations and partying takes place on the tailgates of cars before watching an ear-deafening football game. How about those mind-numbing couch potato parties during nightly TV shows (theater)? The kind of ridiculousness portrayed in 15th and 16th century Flemish paintings seems echoed in today’s TV ads in a new form. What about that green Gecko selling insurance? And we watch brown bears squeezing toilet paper, blond dogs driving cars, and squirrels hi-fiving when they cause a car crash.That’s not to mention fat green mucous blobs wearing clothes and running away from boxes of cold medicine. 
    It’s apparent Bruegel painted the land of Cockayne (cockaigne - a land of cakes; a cock’s egg), an imaginary land of extreme luxury popular in the minds of medieval peasants in contrast to their hard life of feudal times. It was a fictional utopia where pleasure was foremost. We see drunken and gluttonous peasants sleeping, dancing and celebrating in some of Bruegel’s paintings, especially “Luilekkerland” in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. This imaginary life was relaxed, luscious and delicious. The terms  “Luilekkerland in Flemish; Scharaffenland in Germany mean “the land of milk and honey.” In it, there were no lords or masters; no work; plenty of food: gingerbread houses, pies in the sky. It was the land of the absurd, of ridiculous parody, carnival celebrations, and satire. In London, it was the land of the Cockneys. Bruegel’s paintings and prints give us some clues to the meaning of the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch, especially his central panel in “The Garden of Earthly Delights” where we see parades of hybrid animals and little nude people dancing, eating cherries and strawberries, while experiencing all sorts of pleasure. Bruegel literally copied some of the strange animalistic and human-hybrid images seen in Bosch’s paintings. 
     Much has been written from all different perspectives about what Bosch was illustrating. Some of the interpretations are as far-fetched as the paintings themselves. But one concept seems plausible, which asserts these paintings presented a satire on peasant life, and was mocking the corruption of monks and nuns of the Catholic Church. This is apparent in Bosch’s painting “The Ship of Fools” with a monk and a nun singing while trying to catch a swinging pastry in their mouths. (See article by Peter Hofstee where he describes an “Attack by Means of the Absurd”). Both Bosch and Bruegel used Flemish Proverbs as themes for their art. One painting in particular, “The Blue Cloak” or “Proverbs” by Bruegel depicts some stories we read in Aesop’s Fables. For instance, the story of the “Fox and the Stork” can be seen in the midst of this picture, the meaning of which is “one bad turn deserves another.” There are several “fools” and lots of people doing foolish things illustrating various proverbs of the time, such as: “Crying over spilt milk”; “throwing pearls before the swine”; “making ends meet,” “banging ones’ head on a brick wall,” and so on.
      This same “pleasure palace” can be found in Old French and Middle Dutch analogous texts and manuscript illuminations. An English 13th century poem in the British Library, London, titled “The Land of Cokaygne,” satirizes monastic life. It examines vice and folly in the land of the absurd in lyrical form. This could provide a clue to the bizarre creatures for the central panel of Bosch’s “Garden of Earthly Delights” and the ghastly scenes he painted of Hell. Possibly, Bosch saw human behavior as lacking any real spiritual quality so he made everything as absurd as possible, subverting the established order. Even his side-panel of Hell was filled with diabolical demons doing unspeakable things to people as punishment for their sins, a sort of overkill of diabolical threats by the church. There is much controversy about Bosch’s religious meaning. Did he read St. Augustines works? Dante? Was this a commentary mocking the church in going overboard in selling “Indulgences “ for the people’s sins - with their long lists of every possible sin? The town where Bosch lived and worked was one of the main places for selling indulgences and the church’s agents were making a tidy profit. It seems Bosch couldn’t have made life appear any worse in the depiction of despicable acts in the “Hell” side of his triptychs. The creepy hybrid monsters are so grotesque they are comical and, today, we see them as completely ridiculous and absurd. Yet, on the other hand, were they revealing the insidious, irrational “dark side” of human nature? As Tarot cards emerged out of this period of time, we can see how the Major Arcana cards were also an expression of a certain “Utopia” concluding with the joyful dance of freedom in “The World” card. The Fool has experienced the lessons of each card on the spiritual path and emerges triumphant in the end.  

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Minor Arcana: Number 5


Challenges of Life

How do life forms come into being, grow and express their role in this life? That is one big question for which there are no easy answers. 

“Out of the cubic stone of matter, differentiated into a myriad 
of crystalline structures, the flowing curves of living bodies take form.” 
Dane Rudhyar, Astrological Insights into the Spiritual Life”

Where are you on your path to selfhood? It’s here we contemplate: “Who am I and what is this place”? 
Are you being yourself?
Are you knowing yourself?
Are you expressing your real self as you are growing and becoming?
Five is the number of mankind. 
In the largest context, number 5 cards of Tarot refer to the manifestation of universal laws of nature and the underlying order of the cosmos. But first we must deal with the challenges of living this life daily. It is usually full of unexpected events, difficult situations and dangers, both real and imagined. How do you handle stressful situations when things go wrong? What are the obstacles to overcome?  How do you rectify mistakes and overcome limitations while struggling through intense difficulties and turbulent crises? We learn mostly by trial and error and, if we pay attention, we learn from other people’s mistakes. Buddhists examine the drama of human suffering and its causes. They claim suffering is the result of unresolved desires: “I want this -I want that!  I have, I need, I wish.” In this state of mind, when we don’t get what we want, we appear to suffer or make somebody else suffer. Their work is focused on negating the “monkey mind” and releasing those desires. In Caitlin Matthews “Arthurian Tarot,” the 5 of Swords depicts a burning ancient Celtic house amidst the aftermath of a destructive war. The meaning is tied to “unethical behavior” and “malicious thinking.”  Through trial and error we learn to conquer our inner adversaries but some people seem to be constantly undergoing a never-ending sequence of grueling tests. 

“Yet crises can be furnaces in which the coal of ego-structured desires 
is transmuted into glowing diamonds.”
Dane Rudhyar, Astrological Insights
Number 5 in Nature
Five is the number of the “Hierophant” card in Tarot and the Hierophant symbolizes a teacher of nature’s laws. What greater mystery of creation than the formation of life beginning in an egg, a seed, or a womb? How and why does cell-division and the sequence of exponential growth take place? We see number 5 in nature’s designs expressed in the arrangement of flower petals, certain starfish, in the pattern of leaves on trees. You can see it in the interior of an apple and other fruits when cut in half, with a star design of 5 seeds in the center. Then we have the 5 senses, our 5 fingers and toes. Rupert Sheldrake talks about seeing nature in a new light: “We urgently need to find practical ways of re-establishing our conscious sense of connection with living nature. Recognizing the life of nature demands a revolution in the way we view our lives.” (The Rebirth of Nature, Park Street Press, 1991) We see the symbolic impact of number five on art, advertising, and in architecture. In literature, as far back as Biblical times, the door to the inner sanctuary of the "Holy of Holies" within the Temple of Solomon may have been constructed as a pentagonal form as it took up one fifth of the wall (I Kings 6:31 Oxford Bible). The doors opened on a cubical room that contained the “Ark of the Covenant.” There are five Platonic Solids: tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron, cube and dodecahedron, seen in some crystals. The symbol of the 5-pointed star is found in flags around the world. We have 5-star hotels, 5-star generals, the Pentagon building in Washington D.C. Then there are 5-star grading systems,

Number 5 and Sacred Geometry
Let’s examine several ways of thinking about the meaning of sacred Geometry. Drawing the polygonal figures step-by-step can be an exercise in understanding the creative formative processes of nature. To actually construct the geometrical forms of circle, triangle, square, rectangle, hexagon, pentagon, and octagon, etc., can be a lesson in learning how living things form and what stimulates movement and growth. These polygons represent a formative matrix or morphogenetic field of underlying patterns of development. In a metaphysical sense, this denotes the relationships of the parts to the whole in the principle of “oneness” because all geometrical forms can originate in a circle. What is “squaring the circle”? What is a Golden Mean Rectangle or Triangle. Another way of thinking about Sacred Geometry is in terms of mathematics and ratios. (See Robert Lawlor’s book Sacred Geometry, Crossroad, NY 1982, and the chapter in my Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness on “Sacred Geometry.”) Most of the Minor Arcana cards in Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness are based on Sacred Geometry, including the Vesica Piscis, Squaring the Circle, and the Golden Mean Spiral.

The Golden Mean Ratio
Pythagoras taught that man can only grasp the essence of the universe through number. Number 5 is the key to understanding PHI, which is the Golden Mean ratio of 1:1.618, a number of of infinity, and measurement of growth as we see its arrangement in the shell of the Chambered Nautilus, for example. First, the whole shell resembles the shape of a Golden Mean Spiral and each chamber is approximately 1.618 times larger than the previous chamber. A pentagon of 5 points contains the PHI ratio when we draw lines from point to point. Here we see a star with the Golden Section forming and, at the intersection of crossing lines, the ratio of 1:1.618 emerges. Mystics claim this represents the “cosmic man.” One section of each line is 1.618 times larger than the smaller section. This ratio is approximated in many of nature’s forms. Generally, in the head of a big sunflower there are 89 spiral rows of seeds in a clockwise direction and 55 rows counterclockwise.Then dividing 55 into 89 equals 1.618….. on and on. This leads us to the “Fibonacci Numbers” and the Golden Section. The Fibonacci number sequence occurs when adding the sum of the previous 2 numbers, for instance: 1+2 = 3; 2+3=5; 3+5=8, and so on…34 +55 = 89.  For some amusement while playing with these numbers go to this website: mathisfun.  If you get carried away with Sacred Geometry and want to see even more go to Bruce Rawles website: 

So what does all this mean in the Tarot?  Something is happening in our lives every day, all the time, and when we draw a Tarot 5 card it means to pay attention to some challenges you might be facing now. Think about how you are “going with the flow” and how you are coping with the situation. Or, on the other hand, are you resisting change? Burying your head in the sand? It’s time to look at how you are reacting to the situations that pop up daily. What are the changes taking place? How are you dealing with upheavals and distress? What actions are you taking to resolve the issues? Gail Fairfield, in her book, Choice Centered Tarot ( Red Wheel-Weiser, Newbury Port, 1984) sums up the meaning of each of the number 5 cards in the 4 suits as “adjusting and adapting.”

5 of Wands- adjusting your identity and the way you present yourself to others
5 of Cups - living with your feelings in flux, dealing with uncertainty and confusion
5 of Swords - The challenges presented by the lifestyle you are leading
5 of Pentacles - Hanging onto a sense of security in the midst of change on the job, home, or family

When you get a 5 card in a Tarot reading it’s time to take action and DO SOMETHING!


Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Minor Arcana: Number 4


Four: Mysteries and a sense of order

Around the world, what ancient building best represents stability, permanence, eternality and architectural grandeur? Of course, in Egypt, it’s the Great Pyramid! For centuries it was the world’s tallest building. It was constructed with over a million giant blocks of limestone including an outer cover of limestone casings. Supposedly, it was glistening white in the sunlight and could be seen for miles. The base is foursquare  - a four-sided pyramid of equal proportions. The implications of it’s measurements are still huge in mathematics and in Sacred Geometry.
     In Tarot, the number 4 means a sense of order, of measurement, classification, even the organizing principle of government. It is also the 4-fold pattern seen in nature’s realm. The ancients were always concerned with the 4 elements (which we see in the Tarot): Fire, Air, Water, and Earth. Then there are lots of other fours to consider: 4 footed creatures; the 4 winds; the 4 cardinal directions: East, West, North, and South; the 4 phases of the moon: waxing, waning, full and void; the 4 seasons: Spring, Summer, Winter and Fall, and so on.
     Four is symbolized by a square with 4 corners. It represents a stable framework for manifesting ideas in concrete form by following a blueprint, a design, or plan, in an ordered sequence of events.The conclusions arrived at in number 3 can now be carried out and realized in the results signified by number 4. Pythagoras said the tetrad, number 4, was the root of all things. Today, we see it has formed the basis for cosmologies in many early cultures and, the design and structure of ancient cities and temples.

 Let’s take a mathematical jaunt around the Great Pyramid:
According to some Pyramidologists, the Great Pyramid proves the "squaring of the circle" wherein the circumference of the circle is approximately equal to the perimeter of the square. This can be figured based on the angle of the casing stones which was approximately 51 degrees 51 seconds. It also proved Pi. (For all the configurations and numbers, refer to Great Pyramid Statistics website.)

     To draw a diagram of squaring of the circle, you would first draw a square with a dot in the center. Then place a compass point on the dot and, using a protractor, draw a line from the center to the top edge of the square at 51 degrees 51 seconds.  Then place the pencil of the compass on that crossing point and draw the circle. Viola! you have just squared the circle and have taken a step into the realm of the Sacred Geometry of the Ancients. 
     So this must mean something. What? It has been considered a metaphor for the merging or fusion of the material life with a spiritual life. The square is the earth - our material world with everyday goings on, and the 4 elements. The circle symbolizes our inner spiritual world or cosmic life with no beginning or end. For some it’s the realm of the gods. 

  “Early temples were often built foursquare…these structures symbolized the transition-point between heaven and earth. (Sacred Geometry by Nigel Pennick, 1994, Caball Bann Publishing, UK, p. 16.
      A famous foursquare city is described in Revelation 21 in the Bible. The city was measured with a golden reed and was 12,000 furlongs in length, breadth, and height, all equal, so it formed a cube. But it was no earthly city like Babylon, which was also foursquare. It was a spiritual, celestial city of God within a spiritual realm - a "golden paradise," so-to-say. On the other hand, according to Herodotus, the city of Babylon formed an exact square 14 miles long each side and was filled with earthly gardens and other earthly delights. Here is a link to Hieronymus Bosch's "Garden of Earthly Delights," a 15th century artist's interpretation of such gardens. (Also see the Project Gutenberg Ebook of Ancient Town-planning by F. Haverfield.)
    
What does this have to do with Tarot? 
Think about these interpretations when you get a 4 card in a reading.

The 4 of Wands, which I have illustrated here, means the ongoing work on yourself can be perfected in grace and beauty. A new identity is manifested and asserted in the world. Beauty and harmony reign, exemplified by a state of “Harvest Home.” You are spiritually satisfied.

The 4 of Cups: Here you feel stable and secure in expressing emotions and are capable of acting them out publicly. Needs, such as comforting and being comforted are expressed through Love.

The 4 of Swords: You can inspire others by expressing your philosophy publicly and find security in stating your opinions. There will be positive and expansive results. 

The 4 of Pentacles: Here your material success is assured by the ability to get organized, and become stable in business and management. You take responsibility in managing, restructuring, and organizing the flow of objects, people and things. 


Monday, June 16, 2014

Minor Arcana: number 3

Number 3:  Three Little Pigs





 
    We talk and act in terms of the physical, mental, and spiritual. 
3 of Cups 

    We symbolize “three-ness” in geometry and art by a triangle — 3 sides; the trident —3 tongs;  a trefoil — 3 leaves; and a Fleur-de-Lis ♓︎—3 components.

   We hear about the 3 Graces, the 3 fates, and other combinations of the number 3 such as: body, mind, and spirit in the human condition. In a religious sense we think of the Trinity: Father, Son and the Holy Ghost; and Faith, Hope and Charity; the 3 Wise men.

Pythagoras envisioned a metaphysical philosophy behind numbers. He saw a universal principle in a number, therefore — number 3 — added to number 1 and number 2, would mean completion, unity. It takes us beyond duality. Kenneth Guthrie writes, “…this is the archetypal pattern of cosmogenesis, the pattern of creation…”  (The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library, Phanes Press, 1987, p.22). So what is the principle behind number 3 and how is it represented in the Tarot? We have seen with number 2, the relationship of one thing to another and the possibility of making a choice “for better or worse.” We choose to reflect the One or, to do the opposite, where we experience duality. When you add number 3 to 1 and 2, the duality of "twoness" is overcome, and we can achieve a synthesis. Out of the combination of 1 and 2, something new is manifested. A third addition can bridge the tension between opposites and extremes, and the result can be a balanced arrangement. According to Rachel Pollack: “Three also signifies birth and motherhood, for a baby is the “sum” of its parents genes mixed together.” (The Haindl Tarot, Newcastle pub. 1990, p. 28)

In the fairy tale of ”Three Little Pigs,” the big bad wolf attacked the pigs and blew down the house of straw of pig number 1, and the house of sticks of pig number 2, but he couldn’t bring down the house of pig number 3. The third pig obviously learned from the mistakes made by the first two pigs in building houses of straw and sticks, so he built a more substantial house made of bricks that the wolf couldn’t blow down. The first 2 pigs just hurriedly slapped together their houses so they could rest and play. They made the wrong choices. (Original story by Joseph Jacobs, English Fairy Tales, 1890) This is the same moral lesson of the 3 card of the Tarot. The 2 card is about making a choice but, the 3 card is about the outcome of making the right choice. The 3 of Cups in the Rider-Waite deck shows 3 maidens celebrating happiness and success, dancing with their cups held in the air. There is a lot about the “Three Graces” in literature and art. For instance, we see them in Sandro Botticelli’s painting, “La Primavera,” in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. They were companions to the goddess, Venus and their function was to spread joy and beauty. They provided specific gifts:  Aglaia—brilliance,radiance; Euphrosyne—joy from the heart; and Thalia—beauty (especially of flowers). 

 Tarot card number 3 generally means integration, and the manifestation of one’s work. It indicates a unification of preparation and planning. It is creative power brought to fruition. The Empress card in the Major Arcana is also number 3. She represents the abundance of plenty, creativity, fecundity, and the formations of productivity, especially in agriculture.
  
When you get a number 3 card in a reading:
The 3 of Wands signifies manifesting one’s thoughts through planning and execution. One’s ideas are expressed in concrete form.
The 3 of Cups signifies spiritual and emotional completion; success and fulfillment of promise, and a sense of harmony and love.
The 3 of Swords represents the power of discrimination in being able to sort the true from the false and arrive at an equitable conclusion.
The 3 of Pentacles deal with day to day physical things in business, homemaking, gardening, where there is a product, and the satisfying result of hard work.


Sunday, June 2, 2013

Minor Arcana: Two

Two: the other


Two-ness in the Minor Arcana cards of Tarot is not just about two items or things. It is mostly about polarities and dualism. We are confronted daily by an array of colossal forms of opposition. The most obvious and immediate concerns are seen in the futuristic optimism of a desire for peace, but opposed by the never-ending condition of violence and war.

Numeral 2 means 2 separate units, an alternative to numeral one in the form of something different. There are 2 ways at looking at two-ness: (1) a reflection of the One, or (2) an opposition to the One. Then we have polarities that are opposites, or counterfeits such as: good versus evil; active, passive; light, dark; spirit, matter; mind, body; strong, weak; right, wrong; positive, negative; male, female; yin, yang; life, death; war, peace; love, hate; and so on.

In these times, we would like to think that nowadays nothing is set in concrete. So we’ll start out by examining, in human terms, the profound tension between “I” and “Thou,” which is exemplified by the struggle between oneself and the other. Keep in mind that for some, there are still a few absolute truths. When we dip into early philosophical and religious beliefs, we can trace the beginning of the polarities of dualism and its influence on us today, especially since Tarot in general seems to be an outgrowth of those beliefs. For instance, The Magician symbolizes one who has the power to influence events. In absolutist metaphysics, Plato envisioned that ideal Forms such as Good, Beauty, God, and Truth, were unchanging. There was no room for something contradictory. There was only the infinite One, Good, or the Mind of the universe, everything else was an imperfect, transitory, or relative imitation of it.

Harvard scholar, Annemarie Schimmel, talks about Manichaeism (Gnostic beliefs) where the good is spiritual and the bad is evil, “…hence the soul had to strive to escape the evil material person of this world and this body” (The Mystery of Numbers, Oxford Press, 1993, p.51). She points out that this became a major underlying influence in the philosophy of the early Christian Church, and still persists in such “black and white” thinking today.

In biblical interpretations of the first chapter of Genesis – there was only one God and everything in creation was good. As the story goes, metaphorically, Adam was the first man (the other) and then along came Eve who was eve’n another. But Adam was supposed to be in the image and likeness of God, yet it seems something happened, as the struggles in the second chapter appear to be a contradiction to the first. Adam and Eve discovered themselves as separate entities other than the One, and therefore, they were banished from the Garden of Eden, and things got even worse for their sons when Cain killed Abel. This is aptly portrayed by William Blake. Thereafter, supposedly all of mankind’s troubles began. An entire religious dogma of hatred for the material body arose out of this saga. In early religions, such as Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda (the good God) was contradicted by Ahriman (the bad god). In Goethe’s “Faust,” the demon or devil, “…Mephistopheles is the spirit who denies, protests and above all, halts the flux of life and prevents things from being done” (Mircea Eliade, The Two and the One (HarperCollins, 1965, p. 79).

Author, Susan Griffin, in a lecture at the University of Washington several years ago, talked about the “Nazi Death Cults” of World War II and how self-hatred on a grand scale has produced a state of suicidal self-destruct in the denial of human feeling, exemplified by nuclear war. We see how this is still being acted out today in the extreme violence of warring factions and opposing forces all over the world.

So what is the meaning of the 2 cards in Tarot? Numeral 2 can be interpreted according to the connotations of the four suits: Wands (Fire, growth, spirituality) Cups (Water, feelings, psychology) Swords (Air, thoughts, systems) and Pentacles or Coins (Earth, materiality, everyday goings on). In most situations there are always two possibilities, some positive, some negative, depending on the position of the card: upright or reversed. Two-ness always indicates we have a choice to make. Which will we choose?



2 of Wands – Choosing to grow from experience when unforeseen obstacles appear that impel us to choose the right path or, on the other hand, tempt us to go the wrong way which might result in failure and ruination.



2 of cups - Choosing to be joined in love, romance, and feeling good about it, or to enter a love/hate relationship filled with rejection and disappointment, and always feeling emotionally drained.



2 of Swords – Choosing to think things through carefully, while making plans for positive change or, stumbling into unrecognized pitfalls based upon a lack of judgment.



2 of Pentacles or Coins - Choosing to make good decisions in investments, choice of partner, and being frugal in spending and saving or, choosing the wrong person, making bad investments; being greedy and exploitive.

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Tarot Minor Arcana

And a One and a Two!


ONE—“I AM THAT IAM! (Exodus 3:14) What a more profound way to state your identity in the universe! “Hello, this is the Cosmic Mind of the Universe speaking.” To talk about the numeral ONE brings up many levels of contemplation. It’s not about counting dollars in your “counting house,” but more about the nature of numeral ONE in a metaphysical sense. So how should we think about one, or oneness, in a deck of Tarot cards? The dictionary defines an ace as “a single point on a card,” and also as “one who excels.” Here are some of the usual meanings implied by numeral one:

1. One is undivided. It is unity in a state of wholeness.

2. A state of oneness. It is “I” alone. One Self and no other.

3. It is the unity of oneness. Everything is part of the ONE.

4. A singleness of purpose

5. A beginning

6. The first, or something new

7. Manifesting

8. The one Being

Michael Talbot wrote of a Hindu myth about the Self of the Universe who perceives existence as a form of play: “It assumes a kaleidoscope of faces and facades—a dazzling infinity of masks and forms until it becomes the living substance of the entire universe…it is the one and eternal Self of the cosmos.” (Mysticism and the New Physics, Bantam 1981, p. 160)

What does ONE mean in relation to the ACES in Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness?

ACE of Wands (Fire)
It symbolizes the primary creative impulsion to begin growing, and coming into being. It is the yearning to establish one’s identity. “Who am I?” It is the beginning of consciousness and all things new in the realm of day to day experience. In a metaphysical sense, numeral one signifies the start of a journey to find your spiritual Self-hood or soul. Here you affirm your oneness with the Universe and your place in it. The Ace of Wands in Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness is depicted as a magic wand with the fire of Light at both ends. It represents drawing down fiery energy from above and sending out a fiery energy below in an endless cycle of wholeness.

ACE of Cups (Water)
This represents getting in touch with your feelings or sensing how somebody else feels. It means dealing with emotional interactions and, the inner concerns you may have in learning how to get along with others, which includes gaining new insights into dealing with worry, fear, anger, love, passion, and compassion. It’s important to pay attention to your intuition and feelings in knowing if a situation is right or not. You are dealing with issues of feeling a sense of security, finding emotional and spiritual contentment, and being productive through useful and fruitful endeavors. The Ace of Cups in Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness is depicted as a huge cup of spiritual elixir supported by rainbows, signifying hope.

ACE of Swords (Air)
Here, this means you can experience clarity of thought and have a penetrating awareness of the motives of your companions and colleagues. This presents an opportunity to bring new inventive ideas into being. You can formulate brilliant plans and better yet, you are able to communicate your thoughts to others. You have a desire to get to the truth of the matter and can dig deep to find the cause of troubling problems. It is an affirmation of expecting and experiencing justice in being able to discern the difference between good and evil. The sword of the Ace in Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness is centered between dark and light values, indicating one’s skill in separating the reality of truth from the unreality of lies.

ACE of Pentacles (Earth)
This is the potential for you to be involved in earthly, practical manifestations such as planting seeds, and experiencing abundance in growing gardens and harvesting produce; building a house; or following though on a job. It points to having a sense of self-worth that includes monetary, as well as psychological and philosophical values. Hard work leads to material success and generates significant rewards and compensation. The Ace of Pentacles in Tarot of Cosmic Consciousness is colored in earth tones and includes an illustration of a sphere containing a centered pentagon, signifying the oneness of all things working together.

Saturday, January 26, 2013

The Tarot Minor Arcana

A Bean Sprout, Numbers, and the Minor Arcana


What does a bean sprout have in common with a Tarot deck? — Time!
We can think of the Minor Arcana cards as the time-keepers of our lives. They can be aligned with the four changing seasons of earth’s yearly cycle around the sun, and we can apply the implications of their meaning to our daily lives. How do we associate that with the Tarot? First, we see there are four suits: Wands (Fire), Cups (Water), Swords (Air) and Pentacles (Earth) which represent earth’s seasonal changes in general. Each suit consists of 10 numbered cards, plus four court cards: Page, Knight, Queen and King. The numbered cards are not about quantitative functions, but instead, have metaphysical meaning in Tarot. Various interpretations describe the cards as representing processes of change and growth in situations that can be correlated with a person’s life. My teacher, Gail Fairfield, views the Minor Arcana in developmental cycles: “Within the fourteen cards of each suit, there are four cycles of three… a conceptual level 1,2,3; actualized level 4,5,6; expanded level 7,8,9; a transitional level 10; and a fulfilled level P, K, Q, K.” (Choice Centered Tarot, Ramp Creek Publishing, 1990, p. 30)


For a quick overview for finding meaning in the cards, I’ll use a bean sprout as a metaphor for the states and stages of life-processes that are implied in the Tarot. A study of the Tarot Minor Arcana can reveal the underlying universal laws and patterns manifest in our earthly existence. I like how the author, Arthur Young, discusses the process of fourfold development in his book, The Geometry of Meaning (Delacorte Press, 1976). He says, “Spring is the time of physical acceleration…Summer is the time of physical change…Autumn…is the time of mental stimulus” and “…Winter the time when growth has ceased” (p. 118).

In SPRING, the ground is prepared, but empty, (Zero 0, the number of the Fool). [Think of TV’s Mr. Bean] No thing is happening, yet it is full of unbelievable possibilities. One (1) the seed planted in the ground represents a beginning. It is motivated to start the miraculous life-building process—it germinates. (Aces) For us, it’s beginning to conceive an idea; to create something new; a time to start a new endeavor. Two (2) by mirroring some mysterious life-DNA-blueprint within the seed, it begins to establish itself as a new life and becomes something—a “bean sprout.” It sprouts 2 leaves, which are initially nourished by the seed. This action resembles the same process for us as we begin to establish our own unique identity (number 2 cards). Three (3) the bean plant flourishes in stage three with more leaves and its sweet flowers bloom. It is an expression of creative powers and unification of purpose. We synthesize our growth, plan our strategies, and are learning to adapt to a changing world by working together (number 3 cards).

Four (4) in SUMMER, the growth of the plant increases; it matures, and pollination takes place. We explore how to manifest our dreams, ambitions, and plans. We find stability and learn to structure our lives by stepping out of the box (number 4 cards). Five (5) in mid-summer, bugs and disease attempt to attack the plant and, its resilience is tested. It persists in fulfilling its mission. Now, we face our own challenges and confrontations. We take our chances in learning how to deal with opposition, arguments and the unexpected (number 5 cards). Six (6) the plant reaches the apex of perfection and beauty, producing an abundance of graceful bean pods. We strive to find balance and harmony in our lives, and count our blessings, and savor our successes (number 6 cards).

FALL, Seven (7) an entire cycle is complete and the harvest is on. The bean plant is ripe and fulfilling its creative function by continuing to replenish its kind. We bask in a sense of victory and accomplishment in having achieved our aspirations. We have subdued the opposing forces (number 7 cards). Eight (8) from the stems of the plant, the bean pods snap open releasing the seeds within, which drop and fall where they may. We have an opportunity to begin again at a new level; to re-invent ourselves and go in a new direction; a send off to new events and new possibilities (number 8 cards). Nine (9) the new bean seeds make their way back into the earth and wait for the moment to begin the cycle again. We have integrated all our lessons and are learning a new way of thinking and being. We take on a new attitude of well being (number 9 cards).

WINTER, Ten (10) the bean plant enters a transitory state of dormancy, even torpidity. Its function has been fulfilled and accomplished, which was to live and grow and replenish its form. It is the end of a cycle and everything is complete, yet there is a promise of renewal again in the spring. We are in a state of transition into the unknown. We have accomplished our goals and can now rest at the end of a cycle and reminisce on rich memories of the events in our lives (number 10 cards). [The next segment will continue with the court cards.]